Lao People’s Democratic Republic is located deep in the Southeast Asian region. With an area of 236,000 km2, the entire territory of Laos runs along the Mekong River, with 8 common borders with 5 countries with a total length of more than 4900 km.
The East borders the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has a borderline length of 2069 km. The west has a common border with Thailand of about 1600km, including two strips of land on the right bank of the Mekong River. The current Laos – Thai border is due to the colonial distribution between French – British colonialists in the middle of the nineteenth century, from 1902 to 1945 in the past. The Northeast borders to the mountains of Yúnnán China with a borderline of 505 km. The South borders to Cambodia, with a long border of 535 km, running from the mountain range Dangrek comes near Truong Son, the northwest borders Myanmar with a 236 km long border.
Laos has diverse terrain, including mountains, plateaus, valleys and plains. Hills and plateaus occupy 3% of the whole country area and concentrate mostly in the North. From the Namka river or more, it is the northern part of Laos, where there are overlapping mountain-layer mountains, the highest Phou Bia peak in the country (2,817m). From the border to the northeast and northwest of Laos, there are two large mountain ranges running northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast and gradually descending, forming a chain of Houaphanh plateaus.
Between the East and West mountain ranges in the North is Xiengkhuang plateau with the height from 1,200 to 1,500 meters above the sea surface. This is the largest plateau in Laos, all the East, West and North are covered by mountains. On the plateau, there are dense forests, pine forests and large grasslands. Between the plateau there are some small fields of fertile soils such as the Xiengkhuang plateau, Ban Ban, Muong Pa …
The giant stone jars and stone tombs stand to this day in plateau Xiengkhuang are proofs that this place used to form a population center and a period of early culture. Plateau Xiengkhuang is an important source of water for the tributaries of the Mekong River. In the plateau, there are many precious minerals such as iron, copper … unexploited.
The jar field of Xiengkhuang province were the place where many of the most fierce battles of Lao troops were fought against the reactionary forces and the US Air Force. It can be said that jar is one of the most famous places associated with the history of liberation and struggle of the people of Laos.
Central Laos has two lower plateaus: Khammouane and Xavanakhet. Khammouane Plateau has tropical forests that are famous for a variety of precious timber such as along the Nam-Thon and Na-cay rivers. Khammouane plateau also has large reserves of tin, lead, copper ore … (Tin-neng tin mine, Phonbou has been exploited).
Located between Khammouane limestone plateau and Bolaven plateau in the south is Xavanakhet plateau. This is the lowest plateau of Laos with the height from 200 to 400m, there are many arid laterite areas, sparse forests with many kinds of low quality wood developed. Only in wet land areas, there are tropical forests and densely populated villages such as Muong Seon, Muong Phin, Pha-lan and Do-hue.
Going south is Bolaven Red Plateau with elevation from 800 to 1,000m above sea level, rising up in the middle of the southern plain of Laos. The soil is fertile, cool climate, sunny and sunny, the Bolaven plateau is an ideal area to grow industrial crops such as coffee, tea, rubber, kelp and other plants. other fruit. On the plateau there are dense forests, large grasslands like in Tha teng, Xa la van … all year round, this is the habitat of the wild animals of southern Laos, especially deer, deer. Bolaven plateau is also the place to store water and water resources of the two major rivers in southern Laos, namely Se Pon, Se Kong and other archives.
Valley, plain is the third type of terrain in Laos. Although the area is not as large as the mountains and hills, the plateau has a very important role in the formation and development of the people of Laos. These are densely populated areas and developed agricultural production. Most of Laos’ economic, cultural and historical centers were soon established in all regions of this type of terrain. Along the Mekong River, from the North Pole to the Northern part of Vientiane is a series of narrow delta deltas located between the foothills and the mouths of large and small rivers such as Muong beautiful, Huoi-sai, Raffng Xayabury, Namkha